Study Objectives

Primary Objectives:

  1. To evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific qualitative antibody responses after the administration of full vaccination doses (either single or second doses) of vaccines in Botswana.
  2. To evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific quantitative antibody responses after the administration of full doses of vaccines in Botswana.

Secondary Objectives:

  1. Measure neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses in vaccinated individuals and those who recovered from natural infections.
  2. Compare immune responses to natural infection with individuals who have received one or two vaccinations.
  3. Determine the role of demographic characteristics and clinical biomarkers on antibody responses to SARS-COV-2.
  4. Compare antibody responses across selected blood groups (ABO/D/C).

Study Design: Cross-sectional, single visit, single venous blood draw for participants who consent to participate. However, participants will be consented for a possible future recall/visit to assess changes in Ab levels over time.

Study Population and Size: All adults aged 18 years old and above who have received full vaccination (either single or 2 doses) of COVID-19 vaccines will be eligible for enrolment. The final estimated sample size of 4000 participants with minimum of 500 per vaccination group/per phase.

Study Duration: 12 Months

Sponsor: Government of the Republic of Botswana.