- To evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific qualitative antibody responses after the administration of full vaccination doses (either single or second doses) of vaccines in Botswana.
- To evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific quantitative antibody responses after the administration of full doses of vaccines in Botswana.
- Measure neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses in vaccinated individuals and those who recovered from natural infections.
- Compare immune responses to natural infection with individuals who have received one or two vaccinations.
- Determine the role of demographic characteristics and clinical biomarkers on antibody responses to SARS-COV-2.
- Compare antibody responses across selected blood groups (ABO/D/C).
Study Design: Cross-sectional, single visit, single venous blood draw for participants who consent to participate. However, participants will be consented for a possible future recall/visit to assess changes in Ab levels over time.
Study Population and Size: All adults aged 18 years old and above who have received full vaccination (either single or 2 doses) of COVID-19 vaccines will be eligible for enrolment. The final estimated sample size of 4000 participants with minimum of 500 per vaccination group/per phase.
Study Duration: 12 Months
Sponsor: Government of the Republic of Botswana.