Publications Date
Harrison TS, Lawrence DS, Mwandumba HC, Boulware DR, Hosseinipour MC, Lortholary O, Meintjes G, Mosepele M, Jarvis JN. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Mar 4;76(5):944-949.
Clin Infect Dis.

The AmBisome Therapy Induction Optimization (AMBITION-cm) trial, conducted in eastern and southern Africa, showed that a single, high dose (10 mg/kg) of liposomal amphotericin B, given with an oral backbone of fluconazole and flucytosine, was noninferior to the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended regimen of 7 days of amphotericin B deoxycholate plus flucytosine for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis and has been incorporated into WHO treatment guidelines. We believe that the trial also has important implications for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in high-income settings. We advance the arguments, supported by evidence where available, that the AMBITION-cm trial regimen is likely to be as fungicidal as the currently recommended 14-day liposomal amphotericin-based treatments, better tolerated with fewer adverse effects, and confer significant economic and practical benefits and, therefore, should be included as a treatment option in guidance for HIV-associated cryptococcal treatment in high-income settings.

Keywords: HIV; amphotericin B; cryptococcal meningitis; fluconazole; flucytosine.